12. The Waldenses
WHILE Constantine’s purchased converts,
and the superficial-minded multitude followed the popular church, there were
many honest, God-fearing Christians, who resented this sinful compromise with
paganism; and, when they saw that all their protests were useless, they
withdrew to places where they could more freely follow their conscience and
bring up their children away from the contamination of the fallen church, which
they looked upon as the “Babylon” of Revelation 17. Several hundred
Sabbath-keeping Christian churches were established in southern
The majority of these original
Christians settled, however, in the
“Angrogna, Pramol, and S. Martino are strongly fortified by nature on account of their many difficult passes and bulwarks of rocks and mountains; as if the all-wise Creator, says Sir Samuel Morland, had, from the beginning, designed that place as a cabinet, wherein to put some inestimable jewel, or in which to reserve many thousand souls, which should not bow the knee before Baal” – “History of the Christian Church,” Vol. I, p. 356, third ed. London.: 1818.
Sophia V. Bompiani, in “A Short History of the Italian Waldenses” (New York: 1897), quotes from several unquestionable authorities to show that the Waldenses, after having withdrawn to the Alps because of persecution, fully separated from the Roman church under the work of Vigilantius Leo, the Leonist of Lyons, who vigorously protested against the many false doctrines and practices that had been adopted by the Church. Jerome (A. D. 403-406) wrote a very cutting book against him in which he says:
“‘That monster called Vigilantius has
escaped to the region where King Cottius reigned, between the
“The ancient emblem of the Waldensian
church is a candlestick with the motto, Lux lucet in tenebris [‘The light
shineth in darkness’]. A candlestick in the oriental imagery of the Bible is a
church, and this church had power from God to prophesy in sackcloth and ashes
twelve hundred and sixty days or symbolic years.” -
Dr. W. S. Gilly, an English clergyman, after much research, wrote a book entitled: “Vigilantius and His Times,” giving the same information.
Roman Catholic writers try to evade the apostolic origin of the Waldenses, so as to make it appear that the Roman is the only apostolic church, and that all others are later novelties. And for this reason they try to make out that the Waldenses originated with Peter Waldo of the twelfth century. Dr. Peter Allix says:
“Some Protestants, on this occasion,
have fallen into the snare that was set for them. . . . It is absolutely false,
that these churches were ever founded by Peter Waldo. . . . It is a pure
forgery.” - “Ancient
“It is not true, that Waldo gave this
name to the inhabitants of the valleys: they were called Waldenses, or Vaudes,
before his time, from the valleys in which they dwelt.” -
On the other hand, he “was called Valdus, or Waldo, because he received his religious notions from the inhabitants of the valleys.” - “History of the Christian Church,” William Jones, Vol. II, p. 2. See also Sir Samuel Morland’s “History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piedmont,” pp. 29, 30.
Henri Arnaud, a leading pastor among the Waldenses, says:
“Their proper name, Vallenses, is
derived from the Latin word vallis, and not, as has been insinuated,
from Valdo, a merchant of
The Roman Inquisitor, Reinerus Sacho, writing about 1230 AD., says:
“The heresy of the Vaudois, or poor
Now it must be clear as the noonday sun, that Reinerus would not have written as he did, if the Waldenses had originated with Peter Waldo, only seventy-five years before; nor could Waldo’s followers have multiplied and spread over the whole world in so short a time, under great persecution, and with so slow means of travel.
Henri Arnaud, a Waldensian pastor, says of their origin:
“Neither has their church been ever
reformed, whence arises its title of Evangelic. The Vaudois are, in fact,
descended from those refugees from Italy who, after St. Paul had there preached
the gospel, abandoned their beautiful country and fled, like the woman
mentioned in the Apocalypse, to these wild mountains, where they have to this
day handed down the gospel from father to son in the same purity and simplicity
as it was preached by St. Paul.” - “The Glorious Recovery by the Vaudois,”
p. xiv of preface by the Author, translated by Acland.
The Waldensian Faith
The Waldenses took the Bible as their only rule of faith, abhorred the idolatry of the papacy, and the main body rejected its traditions and holidays, but kept the seventh-day Sabbath, and used the apostolic mode of baptism. (See “Ancient Churches of Piedmont,” by P. Allix, pp. 152-260) Their old catechism shows that they believed in justification by faith in the grace of Christ alone, and that obedience to the Ten Commandments was the sure fruit of living faith:
“Q. - By what means do we hope for grace? A. - By the Mediator Jesus Christ. . . .” Q. - What is a living faith? A. - That which worketh by charity. Q.-What is a dead faith? A.- According to St. James, that faith which is without works, is dead. . . “ Q.-By what means canst thou know that thou believest in God? A.- By this: because I know that I have given myself to the observation of the commandments of God. Q.- How many commandments of God are there? A .---Ten, as it appeareth in Exodus and Deuteronomy. . . . Q. - Upon what do all these commandments depend? A.- Upon the two great commandments, that is to say: Thou shalt love God above all things, and thy neighbour as thyself.” - “Waldenses,” Perrin, Part III, Book I, pp. 1-10. (1624 A. D.) “The Glorious Recovery by the Vaudois,” Henri Arnaud, pp. xcvi, xcvii, cv. London: 1827.
Dr. Peter Allix quotes the following from a Roman Catholic author: “They say that blessed Pope Sylvester was the Antichrist, of whom mention is made in the Epistles of St. Paul, as being the son of perdition, who extols himself above everything that is called God; for, from that time, they say, the Church perished” . . .
“He lays it down also as one of their opinions; ‘That the Law of Moses is to be kept according to the letter, and that the keeping of the Sabbath, circumcision, and other legal observances, ought to take place.’ “ – “Ancient Churches of Piedmont.” p. 169 (page 154, edition of 1690). Oxford: 1821.
In regard to the accusation that the Waldenses practiced circumcision, Mr. Benedict truthfully says:
“The account of their practicing circumcision is undoubtedly a slanderous story, forged by their enemies, and probably arose in this way: because they observed the seventh day they were called, by way of derision, Jews, as the Sabbatarians are frequently at this day, and if they were Jews, it followed, of course, that they either did, or ought to, circumcise their followers.” - “General History of the Baptist Denomination,” Vol. II, p. 414, edition of 1813.
That this was exactly the way this slander was fastened on Sabbath keepers, we can see from the “Epistle” written against them by Pope Gregory I (A. D. 590-604), in which he says:
“It has come to my ears that certain men of perverse spirit have sown among you some things that are wrong and opposed to the holy faith, so as to forbid any work being done on the Sabbath day. . . .
“For, if any one says that this about the Sabbath is to be kept, he must needs say that carnal sacrifices are to be offered: he must say, too, that the commandment about the circumcision of the body is still to be retained.” - “Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers” (Second Series), Vol. XIII, Book 13, epist. 1, p. 92. New York: 1898.
Going back to Judaism was considered by the Roman Catholic Church as one of the most serious heresies, punishable with death. And any one at all familiar with the tactics of Romanists knows that it has been a practice, only too common among them, to blacken the character of those whom they would destroy, so as to justify their destruction. Dr. Peter Allix says:
“It is no great sin with the Church of Rome to spread lies concerning those that are enemies of the faith. . . . There is nothing more common with the Romish party, than to make use of the most horrid calumnies to blacken and expose those who have renounced her communion. . . . Calumny is a trade the Romish party is perfectly well versed in.” - “Ancient Church of Piedmont,” pp. 224, 225. (Pages 205, 206 in edition of 1690).
William Jones says:
“Louis XII, King of France, being informed by the enemies of the Waldenses, inhabiting a part of the province of Province, that several heinous crimes were laid to their account, sent the Master of Requests, and a certain doctor of the Sorbonne, who was confessor to his majesty, to make inquiry into this matter. On their return, they reported that they had visited all the parishes where they dwelt, had inspected their places of worship, but that they had found there no images, nor signs of the ornaments belonging to the mass, nor any of the ceremonies of the Romish church; much less could they discover any traces of those crimes with which they were charged. On the contrary, they kept the Sabbath day, observed the ordinance of baptism, according to the primitive church, instructed their children in the articles of the Christian faith, and the commandments of God. The King having heard the report of his commissioners, said with an oath that they were better men than himself or his people.” - “History of the Christian Church,” Vol. 2, pp. 71, 72, third edition. London: 1818.
Names of the Waldenses
John P. Perrin of Lyons writes of how the Waldenses went under different names, either from the territory in which they lived, or from the name of the missionary they had sent to that country. He says:
“First therefore they called them . . . Waldenses; of the countries of Albi, Albigeois [Albigenses] . . . .
“And from one of the disciples of Valdo, called Ioseph [Joseph, who preached in Dauphiney in the diocesse of Dye, they were called Iosephists [Josephites]. . . .
“Of one of their pastors who preached in Albegeois, named Arnold Hot, they were called Arnoldists. . . .
“And because they observed no other day of rest but the Sabbath days, they called them Insabathas, as much as to say, as they observed no Sabbath.
“And because they were alwayes exposed to continuall sufferings, from the Latin word Pati, which signifieth to suffer, they called them Patareniens.
“And for as much as like poore passengers, they wandered from one place to another, they were called Passagenes,” - “Luther’s Fore-Runners,” (original spelling) pp. 7, 8. London: 1624.
This author quotes the following from the Waldensian faith:
“That we are to worship one only God, who is able to help us, and not the Saints departed, - that we ought to keep holy the Sabbath day, but that there was no necessity of observing other feasts’ - Id., p. 88.
Goldastus, a learned German historian (A. D. 1576-1635) says of them:
They were called “Insabbatati, not because they were circumcised, but because they kept the Jewish Sabbath.” “Circumcisi forsan illifuerint, qui aliis Insabbatati, non quod circumciderentur, inquit Calvinista [Goldastus] sed quod in Sabbato judaizarent.” Robert Robinson, in “Ecclesiastical Researches,” chap, 10, p. 803. (Quoted in “History of the Sabbath,” J. N. Andrews, p 412, ed. 1887.)
David Benedict, M. A., says:
“Robinson gives an account of some of the Waldenses of the Alps, who were called Sabbati, Sabbatati, Insabbatati, but more frequently Inzabbatati. ‘One says they were so named from the Hebrew word Sabbath, because they kept the Saturday for the Lord’s day. Another says they were so called because they rejected all the festivals.” - “General History of the Baptist Denomination,” Vol. II, P. 413. Boston: 1813.
Dr. J. L. Mosheim says:
“Pasaginians . . . had the utmost aversion to the dominion and discipline of the church of Rome; . . . and celebrated the Jewish Sabbath.” - “Ecclesiastical History” (two-volume edition), Cent. 12, Part 2, Chap. 5, Sec. 14, Vol. I, p. 333. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1871.
The papal author, Bonacursus, wrote the following against the “Pasagini”:
“Not a few, but many know what are the errors of those who are called Pasagini. . . . First, they teach that we should obey the law of Moses according to the letter - the Sabbath, and circumcision, and the legal precepts still being in force. . . . Furthermore, to increase their error, they condemn and reject all the church Fathers, and the whole Roman Church.” - “D’Achery, Spicilegium I, f. 211-214; Muratory, Antiq. med. aevi. 5, f. 152, Hahn, 3, 209. Quoted in “History of the Sabbath,” J. N. Andrews, pp. 547, 548. 1912.
The Roman Catholic Church has always had a special enmity toward the Bible Sabbath and Sabbathkeepers. Mr. Benedict says:
“It was the settled policy of Rome to obliterate every vestige of opposition to her doctrines and decrees, everything heretical, whether persons or writings, by which the faithful would be liable to be contaminated and led astray. In conformity to this, their fixed determination, all books and records of their opposers were hunted up, and committed to the flames.” - “History of the Baptist Denomination,” p. 50. 1849.
Dr. De Sanctis, who for years was a Catholic official at Rome, and at one time Censor of the Inquisition, but who later became a Protestant, reports in his book a conversation of a Waldensian scholar as he pointed to the ruins of the Palatine Hill at Rome:
“‘See,’ said the Waldensian, ‘a beautiful monument of ecclesiastical antiquity. These rough materials are the ruins of the two great Palatine libraries, one Greek and the other Latin, where the precious Page 75 manuscripts of our ancestors were collected, and which Pope Gregory I, called the Great, caused to be burned.”‘ - “Popery, Puseyism; Jesuitism, “De Sanctis”, p. 53.
Eternity alone will reveal how many precious manuscripts have been destroyed by Rome in its effort to blot out all traces of apostolic Christianity.
We have now seen that the ancient apostolic church, scattered by persecution, and often in hiding, went under various names. Being peaceful, virtuous, and industrious citizens, they were tolerated, or even shielded, by princes who understood their value to the country, while the Catholic Church hunted them down like wild beasts. After the Waldenses and Albigenses had lived quietly in France for many years, Pope Innocent III wrote the following instruction to his bishops:
“Therefore by this present apostolical writing we give you a strict command that, by whatever means you can, you destroy all these heresies and expel from your diocese all who are polluted with them. You shall exercise the rigor of the ecclesiastical power against them and all those who have made themselves suspected by associating with them. They may not appeal from your judgments, and if necessary, you may cause the princes and people to suppress them with the sword.” - “A Source Book for Medieval History,” Oliver J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, p. 210. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1905.
Philippus van Limborch, Professor of Divinity at Amsterdam, speaking of the way the liberty of the people was suppressed after 1050, says:
“In the following ages the affairs of the church were so managed under the government of the Popes, and all persons so strictly curbed by the severity of the laws, that they durst not even so much as whisper against the received opinions of the church. Besides this, so deep was the ignorance that had spread itself over the world, that men, without the least regard to knowledge and learning, received with a blind obedience every thing that the ecclesiastics ordered them, however stupid and superstitious, without any examination; and if any one dared in the least to contradict them, he was sure immediately to be punished; whereby the most absurd opinions came to be established by the violence of the Popes.” - “History of the Inquisition,” p. 79. London: 1816.
Ignorance and superstition generated vice of the basest sort, and brought the Christian world into the darkest of the Dark Ages, which made the Reformation of the sixteenth century an absolute necessity. And, as “the darkest hour of the night is just before dawn,” so the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries were the darkest in the Christian Era. For a time, however, there were still a few lights shining on the religious horizon, shedding their mild gospel light into the dense darkness. But when these were extinguished, the darkness became well-nigh complete. 1. The Celtic church of Scotland and Ireland had sent their missionaries with an open Bible into almost every country of Europe. The gospel lamp of Scotland was extinguished in 1069; that of Ireland in 1172; that of the ancient Albigenses in 1229; the Assyrian lamp of the East was extinguished at Malabar, India, by the Inquisition in 1560; and the Waldensian lamp, that had been shining the longest, and had sent its mild rays over Europe for centuries, was extinguished in 1686. The history of these evangelical churches during this dark period is very interesting and has many valuable lessons for our day.
The Waldenses and Albigenses were quiet and industrious people, and followed the Bible standard of morality, which actually caused their persecution.
“But their crowning offence was their love and reverence for Scripture, and their burning zeal in making converts. The Inquisitor of Passau informs us that they had translations of the whole Bible in the vulgar tongue, which the Church vainly sought to suppress, and which they studied with incredible assiduity. . . . Many of them had the whole of the New Testament by heart. . . . Surely if ever there was a God-fearing people it was these unfortunates under the ban of Church and State. . . . The inquisitors . . . [declare] that the sign of a Vaudois, deemed worthy of death, was that he followed Christ and sought to obey the commandments of God.” - “History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages,” H. C. Lea, Vol. I, pp. 86, 87. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1888.
“In fact, amid the license of the Middle Ages ascetic virtue was apt to be regarded as a sign of heresy.” - Id., p. 87.
On the other hand, the licentious lives of the Catholic clergy placed insurmountable barriers for a Waldensian ever to become a Catholic. When in 1204 Pope Innocent III sent his commissioners to crush the peaceful Waldenses and Albigenses in Southern France “with fire and sword,” these monks returned to the pope asking for help to reform the lives of the Catholic priests. Lea says:
“The legates . . . appealed to him for aid against prelates whom they had failed to coerce, and whose infamy of life gave scandal to the faithful and an irresistible argument to the heretic. Innocent curtly bade them attend to the object of their mission and not allow themselves to be diverted by less important matters.” - Id., p. 129.
Professor Philippus van Limborch writes:
“It was the entire study and endeavour of the popes, to crush, in its infancy, every doctrine that any way opposed their exorbitant power. In the year 1163, at the synod of Tours, all the bishops and priests in the country of Tholouse, were commanded ‘to take care, and to forbid, under the pain of excommunication, every person from presuming to give reception, or the least assistance to the followers of this heresy, which first began in the country of Tholouse, whenever they shall be discovered. Neither were they to have any dealings with them in buying or selling; that by being thus deprived of the common assistances of life, they might be compelled to repent of the evil of their way. Whosoever shall dare to contravene this order, let them be excommunicated, as a partner with them in their guilt. As many of them as can be found, let them be imprisoned by the Catholic princes, and punished with the forfeiture of all their substance.’
“Some of the Waldenses, coming into the neighbouring kingdom of Arragon, king Ildefonsus, in the year 1194, put forth, against them, a very severe and bloody edict, by which ‘he banished them from his kingdom, and all his dominions, as enemies of the cross of Christ, prophaners of the Christian religion, and public enemies to himself and kingdom.’ He adds: ‘If any, from this day forwards, shall presume to receive into their houses, the aforesaid Waldenses and Inzabbatati, or other heretics, of whatsoever profession they be, or to hear, in any place, their abominable preachings, or to give them food, or to do them any kind office whatsoever; let him know, that he shall incur the indignation of Almighty God and ours; that he shall forfeit all his goods, without the benefit of appeal, and be punished as though guilty of high treason.” - “History of the Inquisition,” pp. 88, 89. London: 1816.
To destroy completely these heretics Pope Innocent III sent Dominican inquisitors into France, and also crusaders, promising “a plenary remission of all sins, to those who took on them the crusade . . . against the Albigenses.” When Raymond VI, Earl of Tholouse, shielded these innocent people, who were such an asset to his country, he was “deposed by the pope.” (Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XII, art. “Raymond VI,” p. 670). Being frightened by the savage crusaders Raymond submitted, and the papal legate had him publicly whipped twice till “he was so grievously torn by the stripes” that he had to leave the church by a back door. (Id., pp. 98, 100) He later appealed to Innocent III. “The pope, however, ceded the estates of Raymond to Simon de Montfort,” (1215) (Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XII, art. “Raymond VI,” p. 670). Thousands of God’s people were tortured to death by the Inquisition, buried alive, burned to death, or hacked to pieces by the crusaders. While devastating the city of Biterre the soldiers asked the Catholic leaders how they should know who were heretics; Arnold, Abbot of Cisteaux, answered: “Slay them all, for the Lord knows who is His.” - Id., pp. 99, 101.
In 1216 to 1221 Raymond reconquered his land, and after his death (1221) his son became Earl, and “the Inquisition was banished from the country of Tholouse.” But Pope Honorius III “proclaimed an holy war, to be called the ‘Penance war,’ against the heretics,” and “to subdue the Earl of Tholouse, he sent letters to King Louis” of France to make war on Raymond, which he did. But treachery, which has always been one of the most successful weapons of the Papacy against God’s people, had to be resorted to here: When the Pope’s legate saw that he could not take the city of Avignon by force, he “scrupled not to adopt the vilest treachery and to practice the basest hypocrisy. He offered to suspend hostilities, and to pave the way for peace, if the besieged would admit a few priests, only to inquire concerning the faith of the inhabitants: and those terms being agreed upon and scaled by mutual oaths; the priests entered, but in direct violation of their solemn engagement, brought the French army with them, who thus fraudulently triumphed over the unsuspecting citizens; they plundered the city, killed or bound in chains the inhabitants.” - Id., pp. 104-106.
(This is in perfect harmony with the Catholic teaching and practice, that they need not keep faith with a heretic, as carried out in the case of John Huss. In spite of the safe-conduct from the Emperor Sigismund, be was imprisoned, November 28, 1414, and burned July 6, 1415)
Hunted Like Wild Beasts
The Earl of Tholouse was finally forced to bow to Rome, and God’s people were hunted as wild beasts everywhere. Here are some of the laws of Louis IX, King of France, A.D. 1229:
Canon 3. - The lords of the different districts shall have the villas, houses, and woods diligently searched, and the hiding places of the heretics destroyed. Canon 4. - If any one allows a heretic to remain in his territory, he loses his possession forever, and his body is in the hands of the magistrates to receive due punishment. Canon 5. - But also such are liable to the law, whose territory has been made the frequent hiding-place of heretics, not by his knowledge, but by his negligence. Canon 6. -The house in which a heretic is found, shall be torn down, and the place or land be confiscated. Canon 14 - Lay members are not allowed to possess the books of either the Old or the New Testament.” “Hefele’s Councils,” Vol. V, pp. 981, 982. (“History of the Sabbath,” New, p. 558).
These laws were only echoes of the “Bulls” of the popes. But while the Waldenses on the French side of the Alps were being exterminated, the pope had a more difficult task to destroy them in the Piedmont Alps. From Pope Lucius III (A. D. 1181-1185) to the Reformation in the sixteenth century the persecution of the Waldenses was the subject of many papal anathemas.” Army after army was sent against them, and all manner of trickery was resorted to in order to destroy these honest, plain, Christian people. In 1488 Albert Cataneo, the papal legate came with an army into the midst of Val Louise. The inhabitants fled into a cavern for shelter, and the soldiers started a fire at the mouth of the cavern and smothered the entire population of 3,000, including 400 children. Then Cataneo entered the Piedmont side. Here the Waldenses retreated to Pra del Tor, their “Shiloh of the Valleys.” Cataneo ordered his soldiers into the dark, narrow chasm that formed the only path to this citadel. The poor Waldenses were now bottled up, and their enemies were proceeding towards them, sure of their prey, but God beard earnest prayers:
“A white cloud, no bigger than a man’s hand, unobserved by the Piedmontese, but keenly watched by the Vaudois, was seen to gather on the mountain’s summit. . . . That cloud grew rapidly bigger and blacker. It began to descend. . . . It fell right into the chasm in which was the Papal army. . . . In a moment the host were in night; they . . . could neither advance nor retreat. [The Waldenses] tore up huge stones and rocks, and sent them thundering down into the ravine. The papal soldiers were crushed where they stood. . . . Panic impelled them to flee, . . . they threw each other down in the struggle; some were trodden to death; others were rolled over the precipice, and crushed on the rocks below, or drowned in the torrent, and so perished miserably.” - “History of the Waldenses,” J. A. Wylie, pp. 48, 49.
In 1544 the treacherous and heartless Catholic leader, D’Oppede caused the terrible butchery of thousands of Waldenses. At Cabrieres he wrote a note to the people, saying that if they would open the gates of their city he would do them no harm. They, in good faith, opened the gates, and D’Oppede cried out: “Kill them all.” Men, women, and children were massacred or burned alive. In 1655 there was another massacre of Waldenses. After the Catholic leaders had made several vain attempts to break into the fastnesss of the mountains where the Waldenses lived, and were defeated, the Marquis of Pianesse wrote the various Waldensian towns to entertain certain regiments of soldiers to show their good faith. These Christian people, who always had such sacred regard for their own word, never seemed to learn that it is a fundamental Catholic doctrine, that Catholics need not, and should not, keep faith with heretics, when the interest of the “Church” is at stake. After they had sheltered the soldiers, and fed them of their scanty store, a signal was given at 4 a. m., April 24, 1655, and the butchery began.
“Little children, Leger says, were torn from the arms of their mothers, dashed against the rocks, and cast carelessly away. The sick or the aged, both men and women, were either burned in their houses, or hacked in pieces; or mutilated, half murdered, and flayed alive, they were exposed in a dying state to the heat of the sun, or to flames, or to ferocious beasts.” - “Israel of the Alps” Dr. Alexis Muston, Vol. I, pp. 349, 350.
These people suffered tortures too terrible to mention, which only devils in human form could have invented. The towns in the beautiful valleys were left smouldering ruins. A few people saved themselves by flight to the mountains.
In 1686 another terrible edict was issued against them, and an army raised to exterminate them. And again it was the same story of treachery. Gabriel of Savoy himself wrote them:
“‘Do not hesitate to lay down your arms; and be assured that if you cast yourselves upon the clemency of his royal highness, he will pardon you, and that neither your persons nor those of your wives or children shall be touched.’” - “Israel of the Alps,” Alexis Muston, Vol. I, p. 445.
The Waldenses accepted the official document in good faith and opened their entrenchments. But the Catholic officials, true to the nature of their church doctrines, rushed in and butchered men, women, and children in cold blood. Unspeakable tortures were inflicted on the innocent people, while a few escaped to the mountains. All the towns of the valleys were smouldering and charred ruins. Rome had at last quenched the ancient lamp. “The school of the prophets in the Pra del Tor is razed. No smoke is seen rising from cottage, and no psalm is heard ascending from dwelling or sanctuary. . . . and no troop of worshippers, obedient to the summons of the Sabbath bell, climbs the mountain paths. “History of the Waldenses” Wylie, p. 178.
As these exiled Waldenses fled from country to country, they were persecuted and harassed, but they sowed the seeds of truth as they went. Let us now consider the experiences of other branches of the apostolic church that were scattered by persecution and by early missionary endeavours to the outskirts of civilisation. (See the chapter “Wycliffe, Huss,” etc.).